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Great Northern War - Rise and Fall - Extra History - #5
 
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Charles XII narrowly escaped the Russian pursuit, with help from the Ottoman Empire. But the weak points in his army had been clearly exposed. Northern Europe united against him - but of course, Charles XII responded by launching a fateful counter-offensive into Norway. Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon (--More below) Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ____________ ♪ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H ♫ Get the background music here! The Land of Vana'diel (Album): http://bit.ly/1t2OT9L *Music by Tweex ♪ Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/23isQfx *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm
Views: 694380 Extra Credits
Cuban Missile Crisis - Black Saturday - Extra History - #3
 
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*Sponsored by DomiNations: https://smarturl.it/CubanMissile1 With simultaneous nuclear tests by both the US and Russia, and tense miscommunications among troops on the ground, in the air, and on the water, the doomsday clock ticked to 11:59 PM for one fateful day. *Celebrate DomiNations 3 year anniversary by sharing your experience here: https://form.jotform.com/weplay123/welcome-to-the-3-year-anniversary Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon http://becausegamesmatter.com Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ____________ ♪ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H ♪ Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/23isQfx *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm
Views: 826881 Extra Credits
England: South Sea Bubble - The Sharp Mind of John Blunt - Extra History - #1
 
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Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon Watch more Extra History! http://bit.ly/ExtraHistory Subscribe for new episodes every other Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Follow us on Facebook! http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Follow us on Twitter! http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Twitch! http://bit.y/ECTwitch ____________ When Robert Harley steps in as England's new Chancellor of the Exchequer, he discovers that not only is the government deeply in debt, but no one knows quite how much debt it owes. Because vicious political infighting between the Tory and Whig politic parties made it difficult to pass new tax laws, Harley turned to a private financier named John Blunt to help find enough money for England to keep up with its expenses for the year. Using Harley's government resources, Blunt instigated a series of get-rich schemes that drove artificial demand for unsustainable land and lottery investments with tremendous short term gains. Before the year was done, Blunt had successfully covered the shortfall for the government that year - albeit at the cost of driving England's already outrageous debt even higher. ___________ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H Listen to the outro music here! http://bit.ly/1ERCS9G __________ Extra History - Warring States Japan: Sengoku Jidai Chapter 1: Battle of Okehazama: http://bit.ly/1xgZxfi James Recommends - City Building Games Across the Ages Anno Series (Dawn of Discovery): http://bit.ly/18mJxPg
Views: 1457803 Extra Credits
WW1 Christmas Truce: Silent Night - Extra History - #1
 
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Sponsored by World of Tanks! New players: Download the game and use the code ARMISTICE for free goodies! http://cpm.wargaming.net/ivmqe6kc/?pub_id=christmas1 PLUS! In the spirit of the Christmas Truce, World of Tanks has prepared a gift box for EVERY PLAYER. Redeem the bonus code: HULSE14 On Christmas Eve in 1914, soldiers in the trenches sang together across the wastes of No Man's Land. Some were brave enough to step out of their trenches and meet face-to-face, forming an unofficial truce that lasted (with a few blemishes) until the end of Christmas Day. Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon (--More below) Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Subscribe for more Extra History every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC ___________ CORRECTION: The art for this episode was done by our very own Extra History series artist, Nick DeWitt, not Joseph Maslov! Nick did such amazing work on this episode and deserves all the credit in the world. We're sorry for the mistake, Nick! ♥ ___________ Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ____________ ♪ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H ♪ Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/23isQfx *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm
Views: 1758749 Extra Credits
Rome: The Punic Wars - The First Punic War - Extra History - #1
 
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http://becausegamesmatter.com Support our Patreon to create more Extra History! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon **This video may be used freely in its original unaltered state for educational purposes!** Big thanks to Creative Assembly for making this happen! If you want to check out Total War: Rome II, you can do so here: http://www.totalwar.com/en_US/rome2/ You can also buy the game here: http://amzn.to/14r3SgB Most of the research for these videos comes from: Polybius' The Histories http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0234 Livy's History of Rome http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.02.0026 ...but if you just want an overview, here's a wikipedia link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punic_Wars
Views: 2639580 Extra Credits
Force-of-Nature Villains - Giving a Face to Pure Evil - Extra Credits
 
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Force-of-Nature villains embody pure evil, or chaos, or other forces that move the world beyond the hero's control. They're not traditional characters with motives, desires, and a backstory that makes it easy to understand them. They exist purely to drive an agenda. Subscribe for new episodes every Wednesday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC (---More below) _______ Get your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Watch more episodes from this season of Extra Credits! http://bit.ly/2hhXx6f Contribute community subtitles to Extra Credits: http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_p... Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator _________ Would you like James to speak at your school or organization? For info, contact us at: contact@extra-credits.net _________ ♪ Intro Music: "Penguin Cap" by CarboHydroM http://bit.ly/1eIHTDS ♪ Outro Music: "Jenova Celestial" by bLiNd http://bit.ly/1G2LzRF
Views: 660907 Extra Credits
First Opium War - Trade Deficits and the Macartney Embassy - Extra History - #1
 
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The British Empire's grasp on the Americas was slipping right at the time when they needed those resources most. The massive amounts of tea they imported from China had created a huge trade deficit, but the Chinese were reluctant to let any Europeans trade outside of the Canton port strictly controlled by the Hong. So Britain sent a formal embassy led by Earl George Macartney. Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon --- (Episode details below) Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Learn about the disastrous Macartney Embassy that tried and failed to improve British trade relations with China: http://bit.ly/28Ro4B1 Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ____________ In 1792, Great Britain had just come out of an expensive war that cost them their control over many of their colonies in North America. Other wars had also cost them their access to the silver mines of South America, which had been helping fund so much of their trade with the Qing Dynasty of China. European traders all wanted greater access to China, but the Emperor was wary of letting outsiders too far into his country and kept them all penned up at the port of Canton, which was strictly regulated by the Hong business group. A flourishing blackmarket trade grew, but Britain wanted more. One trader, acting on his own initiative, grew bold enough to approach Beijing and attempt to get a hearing over his trade grievances, but the Chinese considered this a huge breach of protocal and an offense to the Emperor. Britain had to do something, however: they imported over 10 million pounds of tea each year, equal to 10% of the government's annual spending, and the fact that China did not have anywhere near as great an interest in British products meant that they were running an enormous trade deficit they could no longer sustain. The Crown appointed an official envoy, Earl George Macartney, with orders to end the Canton system, establish an embassy, and acquire rights to an island that would be under British control in the same way that the Porutuguese controlled Macao. The mission failed spectacularly. Although Macartney got permission to sail north and meet the Qianlong Emperor in his summer palace at Jehol, he refused to perform the traditional kowtow which was required upon meeting the Emperor. He presented gifts from the British court, but the Chinese interpreted these gifts as tribute, not trade enticements, and decided they had no need for nor interest in what he offered. Since he failed to get them to agree to any of his three requests, Britain wanted to find another way to address the trade imbalance with China. Soon, this would lead them to start bringing in opium. ____________ ♪ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H ♪ Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/23isQfx *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm
Views: 1700152 Extra Credits
Urbino - The Light of Italy: Federico da Montefeltro - Extra History
 
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Federico da Montefeltro shone brightly as the "Light of Italy," one of many torches that helped light the flame of Renaissance. He made his name as a wily yet honest mercenary captain, but he also ruled as prince of the small, remote town of Urbino. There, he and his wife built an illustrious court that celebrated creativity, knowledge, and justice. Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon --- (Episode details below) Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Learn about the disastrous Macartney Embassy that tried and failed to improve British trade relations with China: http://bit.ly/28Ro4B1 Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ____________ Born an illegitimate son, Federico da Montefeltro became the heir of Urbino when his family got the Pope to legitimize him. As a child, he was sent to Venice to serve as a hostage for his family's part in the wars of Lombardy, and by 15 he had turned his fate around to become knighted by the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund. At 16, he became a condotierre, a mercenary. Although he was technically prince of Urbino, his land was isolated and poor, so mercenary service allowed him to make money. He excelled at it: he never lost and never broke a contract. Cities began paying him NOT to fight against them, and he channeled their riches into his hometown. He looked after his soldiers families in Urbino, walked the markets every day, and held court in his garden where all citizens were treated equally under the law. Since he loved history and philosophy, he built one of the greatest libraries in all of Italy, hiring scribes to find and copy classical works that might have been lost if not for him. He also built a palace where he fostered art of all kinds, and young people from noble houses across the continent flocked to his court. His wife, especially his second wife Battista Sforza, built Urbino alongside him. She'd received the same liberal education he had and often counseled him on politics When he was away, she held court in his stead. Sadly, she died of complications while bearing Federico's only son, whom he named Guidobaldo. Guidobaldo was intelligent and well read, but he was sickly and could never be his father's equal in war. After Federico died, the Borgia came and seized Urbino from Guidobaldo, but although his family lost its holdings, his legacy lived on as the ideas and attitudes he'd nurtured in his court survived and spread far enough to help spur the beginning of the Renaissance in Italy. ____________ ♪ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H ♪ Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/23isQfx *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm
Views: 817797 Extra Credits
Berlin Airlift: The Cold War Begins - Extra History
 
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This episode brought to you by DomiNations! Try the game free: http://smarturl.it/BerlinAirlift Tension between the Soviet Union and their former World War 2 Allies escalated into a hostile blockade of Berlin. All sides wanted to avoid another war, but the United States, Great Britain, and France refused to bend to Stalin's pressure. They came up with a daring plan to supply Berlin by air. Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon (--More below) http://becausegamesmatter.com Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Subscribe for more Extra History every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC ___________ Thanks to Joseph Maslov for being our guest artist this week! Check out more of Joe's work below. Website - http://josephmaslov.com/ Blog - http://superjogurt.tumblr.com/ ___________ Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ____________ ♪ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H ♪ Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/23isQfx *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm
Views: 1456130 Extra Credits
The Aesir-Vanir War - Extra Mythology
 
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Sponsored by God of War! http://bit.ly/2FBqVPH One day, a mysterious visitor appeared among the Aesir, one of two races of Nordic gods. An epic and long war began, and yet despite the bloodshed, their war eventually gave poetry to the world. Subscribe for new episodes every week! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Thanks for participating in this week's discussion! We want you to be aware of our community posting guidelines so that we can have high-quality conversations: https://goo.gl/HkzwQh Contribute community subtitles to Extra Credits: http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_panel?c=UCCODtTcd5M1JavPCOr_Uydg&tab=2 Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ___________ Would you like James to speak at your school or organization? For info, contact us at: contact@extra-credits.net ____________ ♪ Get the intro and outro music here! http://bit.ly/23isQfx *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm
Views: 574705 Extra Credits
Warring States Japan: Sengoku Jidai - Battle of Okehazama - Extra History - #1
 
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http://becausegamesmatter.com Support Extra History on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon Subscribe for More Extra History! http://bit.ly/SubToEC BONUS! Learn samurai facts from AllTime Numbers! http://bit.ly/1uGkr7p Follow us on Facebook! http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Follow us on Twitter! http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Twitch! http://bit.y/ECTwitch ___________ The Onin War tore Japan apart, but also kicked off the Sengoku Jidai or Warring States Period that's a seminal part of Japanese history. The power of the shogun dissolved and regional clan leaders or daimyo fought for control of the country. In the mid 16th century, near Kyoto, a clan called the Matsudaira found itself pinched between two great rivals: the Oda and the Imagawa. Abducted as a hostage by the Oda, the scion of the Matsudaira clan (the young Tokugawa Ieyasu) grew up to fight alongside of the Imagawa when he was released. Their combined forces threatened to destroy the entire Oda clan, but Oda Nobunaga had a different idea. They clashed at the Battle of Okehazama. ___________ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H Listen to the outro music here! http://bit.ly/111SVEc __________ Extra History - World War I: The Seminal Tragedy Chapter 1: The Concert of Europe: http://bit.ly/1uLnt5X All Time Numbers - Cool Samurai Facts Surprising Stuff You Need to Know About Samurai: http://bit.ly/1uGkr7p
Views: 2118057 Extra Credits
Cuban Missile Crisis - The Failed Checkmate - Extra History - #1
 
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Sponsored by DomiNations: https://smarturl.it/CubanMissile1 An eye for an eye, a missile for a missile--that's how the saying goes, right? So thought the Soviet Union and the United States in the early fall of 1962, kicking off a 13-day staring contest that scared the world. Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon (--More below) http://becausegamesmatter.com Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ____________ ♪ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H ♪ Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/23isQfx *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm
Views: 1319311 Extra Credits
World War I: The Seminal Tragedy - The Concert of Europe - Extra History - #1
 
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http://becausegamesmatter.com Support Extra History on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon Subscribe for More Extra History! http://bit.ly/SubToEC The Concert of Europe held the continent together for years after the Napoleonic Wars, but as the leadership of great nations weakened over time, the stage was set for a colossal tragedy. ___________ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/1tVcVk3 __________ We also recommend these episodes! Extra History - The Punic Wars The First Punic War: http://bit.ly/EHPunicWars Extra Credits - Why Students Hate Homework Education: An End to Fear: http://bit.ly/1sUjCRL
Views: 1764982 Extra Credits
Cuban Missile Crisis - Eyeball to Eyeball - Extra History - #2
 
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Sponsored by DomiNations: https://smarturl.it/CubanMissile1 After President Kennedy's television address, tensions are rising. Fidel Castro is getting annoyed at the US and Soviet Union alike, and everyone else has their own ideas on what retaliation looks like. Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon (--More below) http://becausegamesmatter.com Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ____________ ♪ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H ♪ Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/23isQfx *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm
Views: 982997 Extra Credits
D Day - La Résistance - Extra History - #3
 
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Sponsored by Wargaming! New players: Download World of Tanks and use the code NEPTUNE for free goodies! http://bit.ly/2rxa5qC European Players: Check out the Extra Credits' Choice bundle in the premium shop: http://bit.ly/1NATaJl Although the French government surrendered to the German invasion, French people rose up and formed resistance groups to take their country back. Charles de Gaulle and his Free French took advantage of these independent movements to help organize actions that would greatly aid the Allied landings at Normandy. Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon (--More below) __________ Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ____________ Why doesn't this series use the Nazi swastika symbol? James explains: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LSjFUOA2oZM ____________ ♪ Get the intro music here: http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H ♪ Get the outro music here: https://soundcloud.com/wargmingeurope-993626143
Views: 1374470 Extra Credits
Horror That Lingers - How the Uncanny Instills Fear - Extra Credits
 
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Too many horror games rely on "cheap" frights like jump scares or cliche monsters like zombies. While they may succeed in making the player afraid for a few moments, they rarely leave a lasting impression once the game is over. More horror should make use of the uncanny, creating scenes and characters that seem mostly normal but are just "off" in a disturbing way. This technique gives players something they can relate to and makes the game world real enough that it seems almost possible that the terror in the game could actually be part of our lives. Subscribe for new episodes every Wednesday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC (---More below) ___________ Get your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Watch more episodes from this season of Extra Credits! http://bit.ly/2wvhPeo Contribute community subtitles to Extra Credits: http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_panel?c=UCCODtTcd5M1JavPCOr_Uydg&tab=2 Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator _________ Would you like James to speak at your school or organization? For info, contact us at: contact@extra-credits.net _________ ♪ Intro Music: "Penguin Cap" by CarboHydroM http://bit.ly/1eIHTDS ♪ Outro Music: "Eclipse Apocalypse" by Blue Streaks http://bit.ly/1yHgFIT
Views: 638965 Extra Credits
Quest Design - I: Why Many MMOs Rely on Repetitive Grind Quests - Extra Credits
 
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Bad quests treat the player as an object to be transported from level to level, using five common quest types to push them through the game without any sense of discovery or exploration. Subscribe for new episodes every Wednesday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC (---More below) _______ Get your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Watch more episodes from this season of Extra Credits! http://bit.ly/2ssxjla Contribute community subtitles to Extra Credits: http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_panel?c=UCCODtTcd5M1JavPCOr_Uydg&tab=2 Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator _________ Would you like James to speak at your school or organization? For info, contact us at: contact@extra-credits.net _________ ♪ Intro Music: "Penguin Cap" by CarboHydroM http://bit.ly/1eIHTDS ♪ Outro Music: "City of the Tarutaru" by Tweex http://bit.ly/RksPqI
Views: 542995 Extra Credits
Fail Faster - A Mantra for Creative Thinkers - Extra Credits
 
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No one creates a perfect game, book, or project on their first try. Don't waste time trying to polish your idea: put yourself out there, create something, and learn quickly to improve upon your failures. Subscribe for new episodes every Wednesday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC (---More below) _______ Get your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Watch more episodes from this season of Extra Credits! http://bit.ly/2qMiJ6G Contribute community subtitles to Extra Credits: http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_panel?c=UCCODtTcd5M1JavPCOr_Uydg&tab=2 Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator _________ Would you like James to speak at your school or organization? For info, contact us at: contact@extra-credits.net _________ ♪ Intro Music: "Penguin Cap" by CarboHydroM http://bit.ly/1eIHTDS ♪ Outro Music: "Rolling Through Time" by Cursed Lemon http://bit.ly/1ne8tNp
Views: 651219 Extra Credits
England: The Broad Street Pump - You Know Nothing, John Snow - Extra History - #1
 
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Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon Watch the Broad Street Pump series! http://bit.ly/1NRSAsL Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ____________ Thanks to his mother's support, John Snow rose from humble beginnings as a coal miner's son and apprenticed to a doctor in Newcastle. As a young man, he treated many patients during the cholera epidemic that struck Newcastle. He noticed that the traditional explanation for cholera's spread - miasma from graveyards and swamps - could not explain its appearance in Newcastle where he treated patients. He took that knowledge with him to London, where he formally studied medicine and achieved the highest honors in his profession in only a year. His formal study of anesthesia earned him such great recognition that on two occasions he was trusted to work on the Queen. But then cholera broke out in London again. Snow wanted to prove miasma didn't cause it and find the real cause, so he interviewed patients and doctors across the city. He theorized that the diarrhea which came from cholera also helped to spread it. He even wrote up a case study where one street whose well water mixed with sewage had a huge infection rate while across the street their neighbors with pure well water barely suffered at all. Confident that he had found the cause, he published his findings, but the medical community was not thoroughly convinced. ____________ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/1iYzuEx *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1LBy9zh __________ Extra History - Warring States Japan: Sengoku Jidai Battle of Okehazama: http://bit.ly/1IUpYw2 Extra Credits - What Type of Player are You? Bartle's Taxonomy: http://bit.ly/1LSrtIx
Views: 1198423 Extra Credits
WW2: The Resource War - Arsenal of Democracy - Extra History - #1
 
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*Sponsored* Hearts of Iron IV comes out on June 6! Check out the game: http://pdxint.at/hoi4_coming_soon To understand nations at war, you have to look at how their economies function. With World War II on the horizon, Europe and Asia dug themselves in for a fight - and a look at each other's resources told them what to expect. --- (Episode details below) Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Watch the WW2: Resource War series! http://bit.ly/1PRaI22 Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ____________ Why doesn't this series use the Nazi swastika symbol? James explains: http://bit.ly/1Pzy1k5 ____________ European economies were so closely connected that some people expected they have to avoid another world war or destroy their finances, but in fact World War I had taught them how to prepare for just such a scenario. Germany, France, and Great Britain all invested in their military before war broke out. When evaluating these economies to see how war would affect them, we look at four main factors: GDP, population, territorial extent, and per capita income. Broadly, this helps us determine how resilient, expansive, self-sufficient, and developed a nation is. All of those factors determine how a nation must conduct its war. For example, the vast territorial holdings of the British Empire meant that they had vast resources to draw upon but needed a long time to mobilize them, which helped Germany determine that they needed to strike fast and win big if they hoped to win the war before Britain's full resources came into play. Japan also estimated that they could win a war in the Pacific if they managed to win before the US had been involved for more than 6 months. These calculations drove the early strategies of the Axis powers, but the participation of the US would later prove to be a crucial factor. ____________ BONUS! Economies of Japan and China before WWII: GDP (Bn USD-1990) Japan - 169.4 Japanese Colonies - 62.9 China (exc. Manchuria): 320.5 POPULATION (mil) Japan - 71.9 Japanese Colonies: 59.8 China (exc. Manchuria): 411.7 TERRITORY (thous sq.km) Japan - 382 Japanese Colonies - 1602 China (exc. Manchuria): 9800 AVG ANNUAL WAGE (USD-1990) Japan - 2,356 Japanese Colonies - 1,052 China (exc. Manchuria) - 778 From: “The Economics of World War II: Six Great Powers in International Comparison” by Mark Harrison Buy the book! http://amzn.to/1oxvdKQ ____________ ♫ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H ♫ Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/23isQfx *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm
Views: 1544996 Extra Credits
The Danelaw - Alfred vs. Guthrum - Extra History - #1
 
10:56
The Vikings moved from Scandinavia to the coasts of Britain, intent on establishing a new kingdom by any blood necessary. What they probably didn't expect was that one of their own leaders, Guthrum, and the local king, Alfred, would end up cooperating on the creation of a kingdom for the Danes. Sponsored by Total War Saga: Thrones of Britannia! http://store.steampowered.com/app/712100/Total_War_Saga_Thrones_of_Britannia/ Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon (--More below) Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ____________ ♪ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H ♪ Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/23isQfx *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm
Views: 780859 Extra Credits
The Bronze Age Collapse - Before the Storm - Extra History - #1
 
07:46
Egyptians. Hittites. Assyrians. Myceneans. Long ago, these four Bronze Age civilizations lived together in a healthy system of trade, agriculture, and sometimes warfare. But then, everything changed when the Sea People attacked. Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon (--More below) Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC _________ Thanks for participating in this week's discussion! We want you to be aware of our community posting guidelines so that we can have high-quality conversations: https://goo.gl/HkzwQh Contribute community subtitles to Extra Credits: http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_panel?c=UCCODtTcd5M1JavPCOr_Uydg&tab=2 ___________ Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ____________ ♪ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H ♪ Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/23isQfx *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm
Views: 1291231 Extra Credits
Great Northern War - When Sweden Ruled the World - Extra History - #1
 
08:35
A young boy king had inherited the crown of the Swedish Empire, and his neighbors saw an opportunity to attack. To their surprise, young Charles XII of Sweden turned out to be a fearsome opponent who quickly repelled their assaults - and then sought revenge. Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon (--More below) Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ____________ ♪ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H ♫ Get the background music here! The Land of Vana'diel (Album): http://bit.ly/1t2OT9L *Music by Tweex ♪ Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/23isQfx *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm
Views: 1601939 Extra Credits
Kamehameha the Great - The Lonely One - Extra History - #1
 
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Kamehameha I of Hawaii sought greatness not only for himself but for his people. He rose up in the face of many setbacks and hunted advantages wherever he could find them with an unstoppable determination to form the Kingdom of Hawaii under his rule. Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon (--More below) Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC _________ Thanks for participating in this week's discussion! We want you to be aware of our community posting guidelines so that we can have high-quality conversations: https://goo.gl/HkzwQh Contribute community subtitles to Extra Credits: http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_panel?c=UCCODtTcd5M1JavPCOr_Uydg&tab=2 ___________ Want to read more stories by Rob Rath? Check out his website: https://robwritespulp.com/ Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ____________ ♪ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H ♪ Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/23isQfx *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm
Views: 994329 Extra Credits
The Collapse of the Carolingian Empire - Echoes of History - Extra History
 
06:52
The empire built by Charlemagne would end up divided by his grandsons, all of whom wanted to rule their own piece of it. But the division worked poorly, and may have set a precedent that shaped wars in Western Europe for centuries to come. Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon (--More below) Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ____________ ♪ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H ♫ Get the background music here! The Land of Vana'diel (Album): http://bit.ly/1t2OT9L *Music by Tweex ♪ Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/23isQfx *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm
Views: 745516 Extra Credits
The 1918 Flu Pandemic - Fighting the Ghost - Extra History - #4
 
09:53
Philadelphia gets hit the hardest. New York fares somewhat better, but everyone is trying to keep hush-hush about a pandemic that still found its way into a children's rhyme: influenza. Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon (--More below) Get info about all our shows at http://becausegamesmatter.com Subscribe for new episodes every week! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Thanks for participating in this week's discussion! We want you to be aware of our community posting guidelines so that we can have high-quality conversations: https://goo.gl/HkzwQh Contribute community subtitles to Extra Credits: http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_panel?c=UCCODtTcd5M1JavPCOr_Uydg&tab=2 Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ___________ Would you like James to speak at your school or organization? For info, contact us at: contact@extra-credits.net ____________ ♪ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H ♪ Outro music by Tiffany Roman http://www.tiffanyromanlouk.com/
Views: 425118 Extra Credits
Catherine the Great - Not Quite Catherine Yet - Extra History - #1
 
08:18
Before she became Catherine the Great, legendary empress of Russia, she was a smart but lonely girl named Sophia. Her mother ignored her until family connections proposed a marriage between Sophia and the presumptive heir to the Russian throne - and suddenly she was thrown from her quiet life in a backwoods mansion to the center of a cutthroat political world. Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon (--More below) Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ____________ ♪ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H ♪ Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/23isQfx *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm
Views: 2161518 Extra Credits
Otto von Bismarck - The Wildman Bismarck - Extra History - #1
 
09:20
Otto von Bismarck became the greatest statesman of a generation, but he began as an intransigent and irresponsible youth. He coasted through college, got himself thrown out of an early political appointment, and caused havoc with his divisive opinions during a meeting of parliament. Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon (--More below) Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ____________ ♪ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H ♫ Get the background music here! The Land of Vana'diel (Album): http://bit.ly/1t2OT9L *Music by Tweex ♪ Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/23isQfx *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm
Views: 1383255 Extra Credits
Catherine the Great - Succession - Extra History - #6
 
08:31
The optimism that marked Catherine the Great's early years turned on its head. She oversaw the partition and final dissolution of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. She also alienated her son in the same way her own mother once did, leaving him ill-equipped to succeed her. Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon (--More below) Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ____________ ♪ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H ♪ Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/23isQfx *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm
Views: 1030677 Extra Credits
D-Day - The Secret War - Extra History - #2
 
11:04
Sponsored by Wargaming! New players: Download World of Tanks and use the code NEPTUNE for free goodies! http://bit.ly/2seicvo European Players: Check out the Extra Credits' Choice bundle in the premium shop: http://bit.ly/2sjUrlF The Germans expected the Allies to invade France to re-open the Western Front, but they did not know when or where the invasion would start - thanks largely to the operations of MI5, British intelligence services, who staged an elaborate deception called Operation Bodyguard designed to make the Germans think they would be invading Pas de Calais instead of their real target: Normandy. Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon (--More below) http://becausegamesmatter.com __________ Written by David Crowther! Want more History of England? Of course you do! Check out David's podcast: https://thehistoryofengland.co.uk/ __________ Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ____________ Why doesn't this series use the Nazi swastika symbol? James explains: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LSjFUOA2oZM ____________ ♪ Get the intro music here: http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H ♪ Get the outro music here: https://soundcloud.com/wargmingeurope-993626143
Views: 1663725 Extra Credits
The Brothers Gracchi - How Republics Fall - Extra History - #1
 
08:28
Rome had doubled the size of its empire in a single generation, but such expansion came at great cost. The wars enriched the wealthy and impoverished the soldiers who fought in them. Into these turbulent times came a talented and well-connected young man named Tiberius Gracchus, who soon learned the power of appealing to the populace over the elite. (--More below) Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Learn about the war with Carthage that fueled Rome's early expansion: http://bit.ly/2aXEE5m Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ____________ Rome had expanded rapidly during the 2nd century BCE. It now stretched from Spain to Greece, with holdings in Africa, and showed no signs of stopping. At home, this growth destabilized the entire economy. Slaves from captured lands became field workers for the wealthy. Common soldiers who used to own land could no longer tend it during the long campaigns, and returned to find themselves either bankrupt or forced to sell to the large slave-owning elites. Now these displaced landowners flooded Rome looking for work, but many of them remained unemployed or underemployed. In the midst of this, two boys named Tiberius and Gaius were born to the Gracchus family. They were plebeians, but of the most distinguished order. Their mother, Cornelia, was the daughter of Scipio Africanus. Their father was a two-time consul who'd celebrated two triumphs for winning great campaigns. But their father died early, so Cornelia raised her children alone and made sure they had a firm grounding in the liberal arts. As soon as he could, the elder boy, Tiberius, ran for office as a military tribune and joined the final campaign against Carthage. There he earned great honor for himself, and learned from the Scipio Aemilianus, his half-brother who also happened to be the leading general. Upon return to Rome, he ran for quaeastor and was sent to serve in the Numantian Wars in Spain. This time, the general he served under was struggling and suffered defeat after defeat. At the end, he tried to flee, only to be captured by the Numantians along with the entire army. The Numantians insisted on discussing surrender terms with Tiberius Gracchus, whose father had long ago earned their respect, and he successfully negotiated the release of 20,000 captured soldiers. In Rome, however, the elites looked on his treaty with scorn: they felt his surrender made Rome look weak. The families of the soldiers had a far different perspective: they celebrated Tiberius, and even saved him from punishment at the hands of the Senate. He had learned that power could be found in appealing to the people. ____________ ♪ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H ♪ Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/23isQfx *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm
Views: 1046900 Extra Credits
Big Bad - I: The Basics of Villains in Video Game Design - Extra Credits
 
05:09
Video game villains that don't match the overall tone of the game distract the player and can become more of a laughing stock than a threat. Game designers must understand the two basic categories of bad guys (mechanics villains and narrative villains) and know not only when to use them but how to approach their design. Subscribe for new episodes every Wednesday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC (---More below) ___________ Special welcome to Dan Jones, our new artist! You may remember Dan from his fantastic guest art episode, "Free to Play is Currently Broken." Extra Credits - How High Costs Drive Players Away from F2P Games Free to Play is Currently Broken: http://bit.ly/1BzgbnY You can also check out more of Dan's other work here! http://bit.ly/1q9P559 ___________ Get your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Watch more episodes from this season of Extra Credits! http://bit.ly/2wvhPeo Contribute community subtitles to Extra Credits: http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_panel?c=UCCODtTcd5M1JavPCOr_Uydg&tab=2 Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator _________ Would you like James to speak at your school or organization? For info, contact us at: contact@extra-credits.net _________ ♪ Intro Music: "Penguin Cap" by CarboHydroM http://bit.ly/1eIHTDS ♪ Outro Music: "Welcome to My Kastle" by DDRKirby(ISQ) http://bit.ly/1tg8crn
Views: 666734 Extra Credits
Cheng I Sao - Pirate Queen - Extra History
 
10:50
She was the most ferocious pirate China had ever known. She was a powerful fleet commander, a sharp businesswoman, and a consummate strategist. She was Cheng I Sao, leader of the Pirate Confederation, and she lived her life on her terms. CORRECTION: This episode's script is brought to you by Rob Rath! Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon (--More below) http://becausegamesmatter.com Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ____________ ♪ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H ♪ Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/23isQfx *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm
Views: 1224944 Extra Credits
Khosrau Anushirawan - Like Father, Like Son - Extra History - #1
 
09:28
Khosrau Anushirawan ushered in a golden age of Iran, but only after his father Kavadh suffered through the near collapse of the empire. Once he broke free from a controlling minister and radical religious reformer, Kavadh realized that the empire needed to change. Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon (--More below) Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ____________ ♪ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H ♪ Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/23isQfx *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm
Views: 1001650 Extra Credits
Byzantine Empire: Justinian and Theodora - From Swineherd to Emperor - Extra History - #1
 
08:09
Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon Watch the Justinian and Theodora series! http://bit.ly/1J89hPd Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Follow us on Facebook! http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Follow us on Twitter! http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Twitch! http://bit.y/ECTwitch ____________ Justinian arose from humble roots, the nephew of an illiterate pig farmer named Justin. Justin joined the army and rose to become leader of the palace guard, then took his nephew under his wing and made sure that he was well educated. When Emperor Anastasius died, Justin used his position (and his standing army inside Constantinople) to claim the crown for himself. His nephew guided the early years of his reign, helping Justin secure support both in the capitol and abroad. When Justin died, rule of the Byzantine Empire passed to the young Justinian, who had grand ambitions to restore its waning glory. It also freed him to marry Theodora, a famous actress who was far beneath his social station, and who would also rise from her humble beginnings to become a revered empress. ____________ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/1NbpIcd __________ Extra History - Zulu Empire Shaka Zulu Becomes King: http://bit.ly/1ITi98p Extra Credits - Giving a Face to Pure Evil Force-of-Nature Villains: http://bit.ly/1d611kl
Views: 1473076 Extra Credits
Bartle's Taxonomy - What Type of Player are You? - Extra Credits
 
06:26
Bartle's Taxonomy was the earliest attempt to break down player psychology in a multiplayer environment. Richard Bartle, who created the first MUD in 1978, interviewed the players of his games about why they played. Their responses fit into four categories, which we now call Achievers, Explorers, Socializers, and Killers. Subscribe for new episodes every Wednesday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC (---More below) _______ Get your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Watch more episodes from this season of Extra Credits! http://bit.ly/2wUpNyb Contribute community subtitles to Extra Credits: http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_p... Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator _________ Would you like James to speak at your school or organization? For info, contact us at: contact@extra-credits.net _________ ♪ Intro Music: "Penguin Cap" by CarboHydroM http://bit.ly/1eIHTDS ♪ Outro Music: "Prima Variations" by Calum Bowen http://bit.ly/1FN6mp6
Views: 501460 Extra Credits
Ned Kelly - Becoming a Bushranger - Extra History - #1
 
08:39
When Ned Kelly lost his father at a young age, he became the man of the house but didn't know how to support his family. Swept up by the grandiose tales of a visiting bushranger, young Ned decided to give crime a try. Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon (--More below) Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ____________ ♪ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H ♪ Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/23isQfx *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm
Views: 1036679 Extra Credits
Genghis Khan - Temüjin the Child - Extra History - #1
 
09:56
As a child, Temüjin was afraid of the world, saddened by its cruelty and an outcast from his own tribe. But his mother, Hoelun, passed on her risk-taking personality to him, a boy who would one day become the famed conqueror Genghis Khan. Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon (--More below) http://becausegamesmatter.com Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ____________ ♪ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H ♪ Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/23isQfx *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm
Views: 1389279 Extra Credits
MMO Economies - How to Manage Inflation in Virtual Economies - Extra Credits
 
08:16
Every quest reward or sellable item in an MMO generates more gold that goes into the economy, causing inflation as the gold becomes more common and less valuable. There are several ways that MMOs can drain that money out of the economy by creating "gold sinks." Subscribe for new episodes every Wednesday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC (---More below) ___________ Many thanks to Nick for the guest art! Check out his other work! http://bit.ly/1qL89rE ___________ Get your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Watch more episodes from this season of Extra Credits! http://bit.ly/2wvhPeo Contribute community subtitles to Extra Credits: http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_p... Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator _________ Would you like James to speak at your school or organization? For info, contact us at: contact@extra-credits.net _________ ♪ Intro Music: "Penguin Cap" by CarboHydroM http://bit.ly/1eIHTDS ♪ Outro Music: "Particle Surgery" by Jivemaster http://bit.ly/1uGOmbZ
Views: 683450 Extra Credits
England: The Broad Street Pump - Epidemiology Begins! - Extra History - #2
 
06:05
Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon Get your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC --- (Episode details below) Watch the Broad Street Pump series! http://bit.ly/1NRSAsL Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ____________ John Snow's single case study was not enough to convince the medical community that cholera was spread through the water, but he did not give up. He founded the Epidemiological Society of London in 1850, the first organization dedicated to studying not just cures for disease, but also their causes. And so when cholera returned in 1854, John Snow saw a chance to finally prove his theory and set about studying the patterns of disease. The disease appeared to strike randomly, both rich and poor, but he realized that in his district were two different water companies, one of which he theorized might be contaminated. Finding evidence proved more difficult than he anticipated: going to door to door, he was often met by people who didn't even know what water company supplied their building. He tracked down landlords and even developed a water test to help him identify which water source each house had, but before he had the time to compile and analyze his findings, another terrible outbreak struck in Broad Street. ____________ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/1iYzuEx *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1LBy9zh
Views: 898922 Extra Credits
Shovelware - The Causes and Consequences of Bad Licensed Games - Extra Credits
 
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Games based on popular movies or books often turn out to be disappointing for fans of the original material. These poorly made cash-in games often spend most of their budget buying a brand license and then rush through development in order to match release deadlines. Especially now when they are moving to the growing mobile and handheld markets, their poor quality leaves a potential new base of consumers with a bad impression of games. Subscribe for new episodes every Wednesday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC (---More below) Special thanks to Scot for the suggestion! Thanks for supporting us, Scot! ___________ Get your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Watch more episodes from this season of Extra Credits! http://bit.ly/2wvhPeo Contribute community subtitles to Extra Credits: http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_panel?c=UCCODtTcd5M1JavPCOr_Uydg&tab=2 Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator _________ Would you like James to speak at your school or organization? For info, contact us at: contact@extra-credits.net _________ ♪ Intro Music: "Penguin Cap" by CarboHydroM http://bit.ly/1eIHTDS ♪ Outro Music: "Strike the Earth" by Dj Cutman & Kevin Villecco http://bit.ly/1msnaNJ
Views: 800260 Extra Credits
The Danelaw - The Fall of Eric Bloodaxe - Extra History - #2
 
10:36
After peace was made between King Alfred and Guthrum, the Danelaw was born--a geographic area in England controlled by the Danes, but also extremely reliant on the cooperation by the Anglo-Saxons and the local Christian population. Sponsored by Total War Saga: Thrones of Britannia! http://store.steampowered.com/app/712100/Total_War_Saga_Thrones_of_Britannia/ Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon (--More below) Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ____________ ♪ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H ♪ Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/23isQfx *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm
Views: 527781 Extra Credits
Catherine the Great - Not Quite Empress Yet - Extra History - #2
 
08:55
Sophia's excitement to meet her future husband deflated when she realized Peter III was a boor who cared nothing about Russia. By contrast, she threw herself into learning the culture with such vigor that she earned the love of the people. She was rechristened Catherine and married Peter... but when he became emperor, his mistakes and her popularity began to add up to a crisis situation. Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon (--More below) Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ____________ ♪ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H ♪ Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/23isQfx *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm
Views: 1517717 Extra Credits
Kingdom of Majapahit - Wrath of the Khan - Extra History - #2
 
09:52
The Mongols came to the island of Java--the King of Singhasari had defied them for too long. But by the time they got there, the king had died, and instead someone claiming to be his stepson, Raden Vijaya, promised to be their vassal. The Mongol forces were in for quite a surprise. Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon (--More below) Check out all our shows at http://becausegamesmatter.com Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage ____________ ♪ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H ♪ Outro music: "Candhi Ayu" by Tiffany Roman http://www.tiffanyromanlouk.com/
Views: 387894 Extra Credits
Africa: Zulu Empire - Shaka Zulu Becomes King - Extra History - #1
 
07:32
Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon Watch the Zulu Empire series! http://bit.ly/1ITi98p Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Follow us on Facebook! http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Follow us on Twitter! http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Twitch! http://bit.y/ECTwitch ____________ With no written records from the Zulus themselves, historians and anthropologists have pieced together their history from a smattering of sources. We first learn of the Zulu as a minor tribe of the Bantu people, living in South Africa. Shaka Zulu, the man who would organize them into an empire, was born the illegitimate son of a Zulu king. He was sent away with his mother Nandi to grow up in her tribe, the Langeni, but he eventually caught the attention of Dingiswayo, the leader of another powerful tribe called the Mtethwa. Appointed as the leader of a squadron called an ibutho, Shaka developed new tactics including a short "iklwa" fighting spear and a simple but effective military maneuever called "the Bull Horn." When his father died, Shaka - now a successful military leader - returned with Dingiswayo's backing to assassinate the rightful heir and assume control of his native tribe. Just a year later, though, the neighboring Ndwandwe tribe murdered Dingiswayo and Shaka vowed revenge on their leader, Zwide. He then launched a bloody war that, combined with the strains created by European colonization, led to the Mefacane, or the Crushing. ____________ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H Listen to the outro music here! http://bit.ly/1L6ihlE __________ Extra History - England: South Sea Bubble The Sharp Mind of John Blunt: http://bit.ly/1BFMKoc Extra Credits - Why Mechanics Must Be Both Good and Accurate Historical Games: http://bit.ly/1EKo1Nn
Views: 1530613 Extra Credits
Early Christian Schisms - Before Imperium - Extra History - #1
 
08:16
Understanding the early theological struggles of the Christian church is vital to understanding history. This series will focus on Rome and the political and religious forces that drove various interpretations of Christ and his teachings - and a push towards orthodoxy. Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon --- (Episode details below) Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Watch the beginning of the Early Christian Schisms! http://bit.ly/1TvNot1 Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ____________ Disclaimer: This series is intended for students, to give them a broad overview of a complicated subject that has driven world history for centuries. Our story begins and focuses on Rome. One of the toughest questions early Christians had to face was Mosaic Law. Did the laws of Moses still apply, or did the teachings of Jesus Christ replace them? The issue of circumcision became a focal point for this conflict. In an era without surgical anaesthetic or procedures, asking grown men to have their foreskins removed was a painful process. Paul the Apostle argued vehemently against the practice because he believed that Christianity needed to be accessible to Romans, the gentiles, and he knew that requirements like circumcision would vastly reduce the number of people willing to convert. Gradually, Judaizing forces were pushed out of mainstream Christianity as the religion began to convert more Romans. But it soon faced another crisis: what was the nature of Christ? This issue would come up time and time again, but one of the earliest conflicts over it came from the Docetists. They believed Christ was a being of pure spirit, and that it would denigrate his godhood to consider him a human man. But in the Epistles, John argued fervently against that idea, saying that Christians must believe in Christ "in the flesh" in order for his sacrifices to be meaningful. A bishop named Ignatius of Antioch embraced that idea when facing a conviction to be thrown to lions in the Colossuem, believing that his martyrdom echoed Christ's and he was proud to give his body to prove his faith. Then the 3rd Century Crisis hit, and the Roman government fell apart. The Church stepped in, and many people believed its prophesies of apocalypse had come to pass in this era. Although the government eventually recovered thanks to men like Aurelian and Diocletian, conversion rates had gone up. But civil war rocked the empire again, and it came down to the Battle of the Milvian Bridge. Constantine, one of the claimants for the throne, supposedly had a vision telling him to paint "Chi Rho" (the Greek letters for Christ) on his soldiers' shields. He did so, and won the day. In gratitude he converted to Christianity and eventually brought most of the empire with him, with the population going from about 10% Christian to 50% Christian followers. ____________ ♫ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H ♫ Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/23isQfx *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm
Views: 1059281 Extra Credits
Romantic Dilemmas - How Witcher 3 Builds Character through Choice - Extra Credits
 
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Subscribe for new episodes every Wednesday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Watch more episodes from this season of Extra Credits! http://bit.ly/1GVGAQv Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet ---- (Episode details below...) Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Join us live on Twitch! http://bit.ly/ECTwitch Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ___________ Geralt in The Witcher III: Wild Hunt finds himself torn between two women he loves. His relationship with Yennefer is passionate but tumultuous, while his relationship with Triss is more tender and caring. Choosing between these two women doesn't feel like picking your favorite option at a buffet, a fault that Bioware romance options often fall into - it feels like defining Geralt as a person through the choice he makes. Geralt's relationship with these women reflects an inner conflict about who he already is (Yennefer) and who he wants to be (Triss). It also showcases a weakness in the "blank slate" character model so common in Western RPGs: by giving the player full control over who the character is, we actually limit ourselves since we can only define the character in broad, easy to design strokes such as "good" or "evil." The defined character and existing backstory of Geralt allowed the Witcher 3 developers to create nuanced choices that help the player think about who he is and what his choices mean. Subscribe for new episodes every Wednesday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC (---More below) _______ Get your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Watch more episodes from this season of Extra Credits! http://bit.ly/2wUpNyb Contribute community subtitles to Extra Credits: http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_p... Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator _________ Would you like James to speak at your school or organization? For info, contact us at: contact@extra-credits.net _________ ♪ Intro Music: "Penguin Cap" by CarboHydroM http://bit.ly/1eIHTDS ♪ Outro Music: http://bit.ly/1FN6mp6
Views: 441532 Extra Credits
Korea: Admiral Yi - Keep Beating the Drum - Extra History - #1
 
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Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon Watch the Admiral Yi series! http://bit.ly/1FkP5ZO Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Follow us on Facebook! http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Follow us on Twitter! http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Twitch! http://bit.y/ECTwitch ____________ Admiral Yi Sun-sin of Korea began his legendary career with a series of disasters. Fate (and corrupt officials) conspired against him to have him repeatedly knocked down from the success he had earned, often because his insistence on strict military codes and refusal to ignore corruption made enemies of his fellow officers. Even when his superior had him tortured and blamed after a loss to the Jurchen raiders from the north, Yi perservered. Stripped of his rank and now reduced to a common enlisted man, Yi nevertheless served Korea with distinction. Meanwhile his childhood friend, Ryu Seong-ryong, had risen to become the prime minister of Korea. Ryu recognized the threat of war from Japan looming on the horizon, so when Yi asked to retire in 1588, Ryu convinced him to stay. ____________ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/1NbpIcd *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1LBy9zh __________ Extra History - Warring States Japan: Sengoku Jidai The Battle of Okehazama: http://bit.ly/1xgZxfi Extra Credits - How Does Frame Rate Affect Gameplay? Frame Rate: http://bit.ly/1NQlx7t
Views: 1797146 Extra Credits
Prey - The Enemy Inside - Extra Credits
 
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What we want to believe about ourselves and what's actually true may be very different things. Prey starts with a simple psychological test... and then puts you in situations that may reveal your answers to be lies. Subscribe for more episodes every Wednesday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC ___________ Get your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Watch more episodes from this season of Extra Credits! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzZ2IphdFGw&index=1&list=PLhyKYa0YJ_5Ab3f-7_XnNdtnplGxaF81D Thanks for participating in this week's discussion! We want you to be aware of our community posting guidelines so that we can have high-quality conversations: https://goo.gl/HkzwQh Contribute community subtitles to Extra Credits: http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_panel?c=UCCODtTcd5M1JavPCOr_Uydg&tab=2 Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ___________ Would you like James to speak at your school or organization? For info, contact us at: contact@extra-credits.net ___________ ♪ Intro Music: "Penguin Cap" by CarboHydroM http://bit.ly/1eIHTDS ♪ Outro Music: Prey (2017) Official Soundtrack by Mick Gordon https://bethesda.net/en/article/Hdrr9u28wMMAq4QEeCai8/mick-gordon-takes-on-the-prey-score
Views: 336718 Extra Credits
So You Want To Be an Indie - How to Start an Indie Game Studio - Extra Credits
 
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Working on your own game ideas can be incredibly rewarding, but if you don't understand the risks that come with being indie, you might not break even on your costs or gain any visibility. Subscribe for new episodes every Wednesday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC (---More below) (Original air date: July 31, 2013) _______ Get your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Watch more episodes from this season of Extra Credits! http://bit.ly/2qMiJ6G Contribute community subtitles to Extra Credits: http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_panel?c=UCCODtTcd5M1JavPCOr_Uydg&tab=2 Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator _________ Would you like James to speak at your school or organization? For info, contact us at: contact@extra-credits.net _________ ♪ Intro Music: "Penguin Cap" by CarboHydroM http://bit.ly/1eIHTDS ♪ Outro Music: "Lullaby of Flame" by DDRKirby(ISQ) http://ocremix.org/remix/OCR02603/
Views: 647333 Extra Credits

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